Began August 1914
Ended November 11 1918
England Most powerful, largest empire and navy, suspicious of Germany.
Germany Wanted more colonies and power, strongest army, increasing navy.
France Did not like Germany, wanted revenge on loss of land (Alsace Lorraine)
Russia Abominable government, wanted the Balkans & Mediterranean Sea port.
Austria/Hungary Ruled 24 million people, much interest in empire. Hostile
Balkans Did not like Austria/Hungary.
Before beginning of war, divided into 2 sides:
Triple AllianceTriple Entente
Austria/ Hungary Russia
For William Morris Billy Hughes believed conscription was necessary because they must defeat Germany or else they would be over taken. He also said we owed it to the great armies to send more men.
Against Archbishop Mannix opposed conscription, as he believed that it was a very hateful and evil thing. He said that their may have been less loss of lives had conscription in Europe been stopped. Also he stated, men which went to war because they had to, not because they wanted to, wouldnt fight as hard or for their country as fiercely.
War Precautions Act:
Power given to government to make regulations and orders for the safety of Australia
Govt. able to censor press releases if news was to advantage the enemy
German possessions impounded and German good not sellable
Germany invades Belgium.
Britain declares war on Germany.
Japan joins the Allied forces: Ottoman Empire soon joins the Central Powers.
War spreads to the seas.
Women take up men’s jobs.
Stalemate continues on the Western Front.
The Lusitania passenger liner is sunk, with 1,200 lives lost.
London attacked from the air by German Zeppelins.
Conscription for men aged between 18 and 41.
A million casualties in ten months: Germany aims to ‘bleed France white’.
At sea the Battle of Jutland takes place.
Armed uprisings in Dublin: the Irish Republic is proclaimed.
German Army retreats to the Hindenburg Line.
United States joins the war and assists the Allies.
Tank, submarine and gas warfare intensifies.
Royal family change their surname to Windsor to appear more British.
Germany launches major offensive on the Western Front.
Allies launch successful counter-offensives at the Marne and Amiens.
Armistice signed on November 11, ending the war at 11am.
In Britain, a coalition government is elected and women over 30 succeed in gaining the vote.
At home the Anti-German feeling was strong:
German shops vandalised
No German music allowed
St Kilda changed colours to Belgium flag
Australians would not work with Germans
All mail was opened and phone conversations listened to
Australian women were required to wait and weep
Women had to create their own opportunities
Huge amounts of women volunteered in the Red Cross and Australian Comfort Fund
Red Cross workers made thousands of garments for soldiers
Not many nurses were sent over seas
Employment opportunities limited