des of the beautiful Bosphorus which was naturally formed early in the IVth Period of Geology as the sea water occupied the deep and narrow valley. The city has been the capital for three empires and been attractive for its historical treasure besides the beauty of the surrounding landscape. In 660 B.C., the Megarians who were leaded by Byzas for settlement in where today Topkapi Palace stands erect, named the city as Byzantion in memory of their commander.
When the Byzas, Megarians asked their prophets where to set up their home, their prophets said against the land of the blinds. On exploration of the Bosphorus the Megarians were fascinated by the uninhabited beauty of the landscape and as the land accross the water was already occupied by the Khalkhedonians, they thought one who leaves such beauty uninhabited and lives against it must be blind and obeyed their prophets foresight with pleasure. A century later than the establishment Byzantion was occupied by Persians in 513 B.C. and then by Athens and Spartians. In a period of conflict between Athens and Spartians, Macedonian Kingdom under King Philippos IIs reign had become powerful day after day. Although this expansive Kingdom captured Byzantion in 340 B.C., was unable to occupy. After Greece was dominated by Alexander who took over King Philippos II, Persians were also attacked by him and Alexander got hold of Anatolia defeating the Persians in 334 B.C.. Following the death of Alexander, the city was governed by his victorious commanders until it was tremendously destroyed by the Galatian attacks after 278 B.C.
In that period of fluctuation, Byzantion eventually was dominated by Romans who were about to establish a global Empire after the defeat of Macedonians in 146 B.C. and the city was governed under the force of Roman State of Thrace. Roman Emperor Septimus Severus ordered total destruction of the Byzantion and massacre of the Byzantians who were with his rival Roman General Niger.