Organisms have to adapt to their environment or they will become
extinct. Organisms also have to adapt to their environment or become prey to
predators. If they become prey and are eaten they can’t reproduce and pass
on their traits. Some organisms adapt to their environment by reproducing a
lot. Also, organisms adapt to their environment by staying in an environment
where the color of their surroundings are the same color of their body. They
do this to blend in and so predator can’t attack them. Organisms also try to
conserve their energy by staying in one place and moving only when it is
necessary. For example when chasing prey or running away from predators.
Early scientists like Lamarck believed that acquired traits were passed
on to the organism’s offspring. Lamarck also believed that giraffes’ necks
became longer from stretching to reach high for food and the long neck could
be inherited by offspring. According to Lamarck, evolution occurs as
structures develop through use, or disappear because of disuse. As these
” acquired characteristics ” are passed to offspring. Lamarck couldn’t support
his theory of evolution with actual data. Lamarck also didn’t know anything
about genetics. A test can easily be designed to show how hereditary traits
can change a population.
There were many materials needed for this experiment. They are as
follows: mice, owls, environment, food for mice, water, and shelter.
Our procedures for this experiment were, first there were one-hundred
mice that we started with and there were ten different colors of mice. Next
each owl ate seventy-five mice per a generation. Then each mouse
reproduced three offsprings to make it back to one-hundred mice. Then the
information was written on a data table. Next repeat procedures 1-4 for the
second generation. Last repeat procedures 1-4 again for the third generation.
In the second generation red, purple, white, black, green, pink, and
brown are the only colors of the mice that survived. The colors of the mice
that became extinct are orange, blue, and yellow. In the third generation
purple, red, black, green, pink, and brown are the only colors of the mice that
survived. The colors of the mice that became extinct are orange, blue, yellow,
and white. See appendix A for graph (backside)
I found out that the mice that didn’t adapt to their environment became
extinct. I came to this conclusion because all the mice who became extinct
were bright and they didn’t blend into their environment. All of Lamarck’s
ideas were wrong because only traits in our genes are hereditary. Lets say that
somebody got into a car accident and their whole face is damaged. Then that
person has children. This won’t mean that the children are also going to have
a damaged face because none of the traits in the genes were changed.
Lamarck ideas were also wrong because if something is changed by artificial
selection it doesn’t mean that the genes were changed so it can’t be hereditary.
The results indicate that organisms adapt to their environment by the
color of their body. All the mice that were not camouflaged became extinct
and the mice that were camouflaged stayed alive. The mice that were not able
to camouflage didn’t have enough time to reproduce. There are five principles
of natural selection, the first one is variation must exist and the second one is
there must be a struggle for survival. The third one is only some individuals
survive to reproduce and the forth one is organisms produce more so some
can survive. The last one is natural selection causes genetic change.
Other people like Darwin thought that organisms adapt by natural
selection. Darwin saw that by surviving, individuals have the opportunity to
reproduce and pass on their favorable characteristics to offspring. These
characteristics will increase in population and will gradually change. Other
mechanisms are geographical isolation, ecological isolation, temporal
isolation, behavioral isolation, and mechanical isolation.