STEPS 2 & 3
1. What is property P? Increase in brain activity
2. What is the sample? The 16 boys
3. What is the population? All children
4. What is the implicit question? Why is there a difference in brain function between normal kids and kids with ADHD.
5. What is not the implicit question? Do all children have a property p?
6. What type of argument? Sampling
7. what did they look at? They looked at 16 children who were diagnosed with ADHD six were not.
8. IQ: Is there a difference in brain function between normal kids and kids with ADHD?
9. NOT: Do all children have a difference in brain function?
S16% of school children suffer from ADHD and require medication.
S2They looked at 16 children between 8 and 13 who were diagnosed with ADHD six were not..
S3Ritalin is the drug used to treat children with hyperactive and aggressive behavior.
S4/C1 ADHD children react differently than normal kids when given Ritalin
S5Children with ADHD exhibit problems like poor listening and poor impulse control..
S6Healthy children have a decrease in brain activity when given Ritalin.
C2Ritalin has no positive effect on behavior in healthy children
1. What type of argument? Correlation
2. What is A ? “GIK” treatment (glucose insulin and potassium)
3. What is B? Reduction in heart attack deaths.
4. Causal Mechanism? Clogged arteries
5. What is the implicit question? Why does oxygen nourishment (GIK)to the heart reduce heart attack deaths?
6. NOT- What caused a reduction I Heart attacks?
7. Which rival explains why a and b occur together? Forward cause
Rival – Those that received treatment did not have clogged arteries.
The argument in the article is a correlation argument. There is a correlation between “A” the GIK treatment and “B” the reduction in heart attack deaths. The arguer believes there is a correlation because of a prior study. This study was originally conducted in 1960. And had showed and overall reduction in heart attack death rate by half. This study was discarded however because of poorly conducted clinical tests. These tests led many doctors to doubt that it worked. The study conducted called GIK for glucose, insulin and potassium nourishes t65he heart muscle that are deprived of oxygen immediately following a heart attack. The causal mechanism are clogged arteries that reduce the flow of oxygen to the heart. The researches need to continue the study of the treatment along with the treatment for clogged arteries to consider this a strong argument. Many of the findings are undermined by the fact that many of the patients that survived were receiving clot busting drugs combined with the GIK treatment. This is relevant data to support the conclusion.
S1Patients who received the GIK treatment combined with clot busting drugs have a better chance
of surviving a heart attack.
S2The treatment provides energy to the heart muscle during and immediately after a heart attack.
C1If doctors use the GIK treatment combined with clot busting drugs the heart attack death rate will
1. What is A? the CHD1 gene
2. What is B? Causes heart disease.
3. What is causal mechanism? Bad diet and lack of exercise
4. Is the Author saying one thing cause another? Yes
5. What is the implicit question? Why does the gene appear to promot heart disease?
6. NOT – What caused the heart disease.
7. This could be common cause because there are environmental factors that could be the cause of A and B.
Rival – The gene caused the body to over produce cholesterol which collects in the arteries and cause blockage of blood flow to the heart.
The argument for the article is a correlation argument. There is a correlation between “A” the CHD1 gene and “B” heart disease. The arguer believes there is a correlation because of the study of the 75 families who had a history of early heart disease. The causal mechanism is Bad diet and lack of exercise. Relevant data to support the conclusion would be causes of arterial blockage and how many of the children had high levels of cholesterol. If the children had high levels of cholesterol in their blood this would be relevant data to support the conclusion. I believe this is a weak argument.
S110% of the families in the study were affected by the gene linked to heart disease.
S2They used 75 families from the Mormon church who had kept strict records of early coronary
heart disease and had a tendency toward obesity an d diabetes.
C1High cholesterol caused buy diet and eating habits caused heart disease in the Mormon family
1. What is A? Vitamin A compounds
2. What is B? The frogs deformities
3. What is the Causal Mechanism? The hormone Retinoic acid.
4. IQ: Why are frogs developing deformities?
5. NOT What caused the frogs deformities?
Rival – Pesticides used by farmers leave trace amounts of the compound which seeps into the soil and contaminate the smaller lakes and ponds.
The argument in the article is a correlation argument . There is a correlation between “A” the Vitamin compounds and “B” the frogs deformities. The researches believe the compounds cause limb development deformities. Water samples taken of the lake in Minnesota that produced many of the deformed frogs is relevant data to support the conclusion. Many of the states that have deformed frogs are farming states which use a wide range of pesticides to protect their crops from parasites. This is a strong argument.
1. What type of argument? Prediction argument
IQ: Why did Bill Clinton sign the Bill to fund after school programs?
S1 Most juvenile crime occurs during the after school hours.
S2 The Bill would provide an incentive fore kids to stay in school after class.
C1 Underprivileged students attend these programs.
S3 Most students get hungry after school before dinner time.
C2 If more students attend these programs the rate of juvenile crime, teenage pregnancy and drug experimentation will decline.
A = Urban run off
B = caused the bacterial contamination off Huntington Beach
IQ: Why are the levels of bacteria so high in the city pump stations and off Huntington Beach?
NOT – What’s causing the bacterial contamination?
Rival – Huntington Beach is near several businesses that dump chemicals into the gutters.
The argument in the article is a correlation argument. There is a correlation between “A” urban run-off and “B” the contamination off Huntington Beach. The city officials believe the urban runoff is the cause of the high level of bacterial contamination. Crews dumped dozens of oranges and grapefruits from a boat in the Talbert Marsh and tracked their direction. The fruit ended up in the area where runoff normally flows and where the contamination was located. This is relevant data to support the conclusion. This is a strong argument.
B: caused increase in hospital visits
IQ: Why is there an increase in hospital visits in LA county area?
NOT: What caused the emergency room visits?
Sample: 44,005 people admitted to LA area hospitals
Population: All LA area residents.
S1 10% of those admitted to hospitals in LA County are because of ozone.
S2 The researchers did not review medical records to determine causes of sickness.
S3 of 44,005 actually admitted, researchers attribute from 2,856 to 4,371 of admissions to the air pollutant.
S4C1 Patients who went to the hospital suffered form shortness of breath, asthma and chronic respiratory disease.
S5 The rate of hospital visits linked to smog was lower in other cities that in LA where smog is much more severe.
S6 Studies show ozone affects health when present at lower level that the current standard.
C2 The exposure to ozone on smoggy days caused the increases in hospital admissions by patients with respiratory ailments.