I think the reson the d-day operation was sucsessfull was because of deception. It was 1944, and by this time the united states had been “in the war” aginst germany for threee years and the british had been in for almost six years. Alot of people dont know that there were many beachs that were seiged that same day that usaully dont get meantioned. the two that were the most importante that most people focuos on were the Omaha and utah beach beacuase of so many american solgers flooded those beachs and they had alot of casulties. Most of the other beachs were tackin with minamal casulties.
over the next couple of hours the men on the beachs had to go though hell. The “allied invaders” had to tack these beach they played a huge role in the over all sucsees of the operation. Before the landing the german beachs had to be preped by bombing by air by the united states bombers that with 1,000 ships droped 5,000 tons of bombs. The beachs were also softened up by the united states battel ships bombarding the beachs.
Although fewer Allied ground troops went ashore on D-Day than on the first day of the earlier invasion of Sicily, the invasion of Normandy was in total history’s greatest water to land operation, involving on the first day 5,000 ships, the largest “armada” ever assembled; 11,000 aircraft (following months of preliminary bombardment); and approximately 154,000 British, Canadian and American soldiers, including 23,000 arriving by parachute and glider. The invasion also involved a long-range deception plan on a scale the world had never before seen and the clandestine operations of tens of thousands of Allied resistance fighters in Nazi-occupied countries of western Europe.
American General Dwight D. Eisenhower was named supreme commander for the allies in Europe. British General, Sir Frederick Morgan, established a combined American-British headquarters known as COSSAC, for Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander. COSSAC developed a number of plans for the Allies, most notable was that of Operation Overlord, a full scale invasion of France across the English Channel.
Eisenhower felt that COSSAC’s plan was a good operation. After reviewing the disastrous hit-and-run raid in 1942 in Dieppe, planners decided that the strength of German defenses required not a number of separate assaults by relatively small units but an intense concentration of power in a single main landing. The invasion site would have to be close to at least one major port and airbase to allow for efficient supply lines. Possible sites included among others, the Pas de Calais across the Strait of Dover, and the beaches of Cotentin. It was decided by the Allies that the beaches of Cotentin would be the landing site for Operation Overlord.
In my opinion, the primary reason that the invasion worked was deception. Deception to mislead the Germans as to the time and place of the invasion. To accomplish this, the British already had a plan known as Jael, which involved whispering campaigns in diplomatic posts around the world and various distractions to keep German eyes focused anywhere but on the coast of northwestern France. An important point to the deception was Ultra, code name for intelligence obtained from intercepts of German radio traffic. This was made possible by the British early in the war having broken the code of the standard German radio enciphering machine, the Enigma. Through Ultra the Allied high command knew what the Germans expected the Allies to do and thus could plant information either to reinforce an existing false view or to feed information through German agents, most of it false but enough of it true-and thus sometimes involving sacrifice of Allied troops, agents or resistance forces in occupied countries-to maintain the good will of the German agents.
Six days before the targeted date of June 5, troops boarded ships, transports, aircraft all along the southern and southwestern coasts of England. All was ready for one of history’s most dramatic and momentous events. One important question was left unanswered though: what did the Germans know?
Under Operation Fortitude, a massive American force-the 1st Army Group-assembled just across the Channel from the Pas de Calais. Dummy troops, false radio traffic, dummy landing craft in the bay of the Thames river, huge but unoccupied camps, dummy tanks-all contributed to the deception. Although the Allied commanders could not know it until their troops were ashore, their deception had been remarkably successful. As time for the invasion neared, the German’s focus of the deception had shifted from the regions of the Balkans and Norway to the Pas de Calais. The concentration of Allied troops was so great, that an invasion of France seemed inevitable. Bombing attacks, sabotage by the French Resistance and false messages from compromised German agents all focused on the Pas de Calais with only minimal attention to Normandy. Also, German intelligence thought that the Allies had 90 divisions ready for the invasion (really only 39), so that even after the invasion of Normandy, the belief could still exist that Normandy was just a preliminary measure and the main invasion of the Pas de Calais was still to come. None of the German high command in France doubted that the invasion would strike the Pas de Calais. The F hrer himself, Adolf Hitler, had an intuition that the invasion would come to Normandy but was unable to incite his commanders to make more than minimal reinforcement there.
Due to weather complications, the first step in the invasion began a day late, on June 6 around 12:15 am. An air attack on Normandy. The Germans saw the airborne assault as nothing more than a raid or at most a diversionary attack. As the airborne landings continued, Field Marshal von Rundstedt nevertheless decided that even if the assault was a diversionary attack, it had to be defeated. Around 4:00 am, he ordered two panzer divisions to prepare for counter attack, but when he reported what he had done to the high command in Germany, word came back to halt the divisions pending approval from Hitler. That would be a long time coming, for Hitler’s staff was reluctant to disturb the Fhrer’s sleep.
For the following 12 hours, Allied forces landed on five beaches defeating with minimal casualties, the German defenses. It was 4 pm on D-Day before Hitler at last approved the deployment of the two panzer divisions. Allied deception had been remarkably effective and because Hitler had been sleeping and was then slow to carry out any action, German power which could have spelled defeat for the invasion had been withheld. The rest of the armoured reserve in France-five divisions-and the 19 divisions of the massive Fifteenth Army in the Pas de Calais, stood idle feeling that the main invasion was still to come.
The next day, after word reached Hitler that German troops had found copies of U.S. operation orders indicating that the landing in Normandy constituted the main invasion, he ordered the panzer reserve into action, but Allied intelligence was ready for such an emergency. Through Ultra the Allied command learned of Hitler’s orders, and through a compromised German agent known as Brutus, it sent a word that the American corps orders were a plant. The main invasion, Brutus reported, was still to come in the Pas de Calais. Hitler canceled his orders.
Had Allied commanders known of the near-bankruptcy of troops on the German side, they would have had more cause for encouragement. The Seventh Army (German defense of Normandy) had thrown into the battle every major unit available. The commander of the Seventh Army was reluctant to commit any forces from the West (Brittany) to the invasion, fearful of a second Allied landing. Meanwhile, most German officials-were confused by Allied deception-and continued to believe that a bigger landing was still to come in the Pas de Calais.
In my opinion, the primary reason that the invasion worked was deception. D-Day was a tremendous achievement for British, Canadian and American fighting men, but it also owed an immeasurable debt to Ultra and to the deception that Ultra made possible.
Well about the acual battels in more detail. engineners came in before and helped clear the may by blowing up the obstacels in the way. Then the ships bombarded the beach and fired many rockets but were out of range so the literly blew up thousands of fish but no nazis. Then many of the bombers missed there targets and they didnt just miss by a littel they missed by five miles! One reson that omaha was such a diffucult beach to tack is because its high bluffs around it witch made it hard to hit by bombardment. On omaha beach they had two huge concrete pillboxs with machine guns in them.
The germans defences were not at the level that they want them to be yet. The omaha beach was almost perfect in design it left a narrow beach that had to be ran up on foot. The pillboxs were dug into the 200 foot bluffs that had a exelent vantage point and could easyl mow down troops runing up the beach. Also with the bluffs on both side they never had to worrie about a flanking attack. And a as I mentioned earlyer it was very hard to bomb it cause of the bluffs. The gap to run up was 10 square kilometers.
The way the pillboxes were set up the could send down a rain of machine gun fire in three diffrant directions witch caused alot of cross fire witch proved to be very deadly.
There were four big reasons the amercans thought the beach would have been easyer than it was. One was they thought it was maned by the 716th divisoin witch was compsed of some russians and poles……….not true in truth they were maned by the 352 division witch was composed of very well trained germans. Two was that we thought there were 800 troops maning the beach when in reality then were three to four times that. Three was that because of the itense smoke the bombers missed there targets by 5 milles inland. And fourth and finally the vehicles that were sposed to suport the troops got stuck wheil comenceing the landing.
It was planed that two hours after the landing that they would have tanks and jeeps pushing inland…….this didnt even come close to going to plan. This was not a rare acurance because some of the tanks landed almost 5 kilometers away because of wind and bad weather.
Sargent harry r Bare descibed the beach ” roberson had gaping hole in his forehead and my radio man had his head blown off. I saw a man praying on the beahc with rosery beads and at the next moment he was cut in half by german crosfire. There were bodys all over the beach most of them were missing heads or arms and legs. I could see the mahicne gun bullets cutting up the beach makeing noise like a huge swarm of bees.”
It was pure pandemonuim on the beach the troops found themselves pined with no leaders. some leaders said this”there are two people on this beach dead poeple and those about to die NOW LETS GET THE HELL OUT OF HERE” and with that said they stormed the beach and took them with odds stacked well agnist them. There for a while the troops didnt look like they were ganna make it off the beach that day then with the bravery of a few indivudals ot lead the way. All of the men who steped on the beach that day I belive are heros.
This came at a very high cost, by the end of the day more than 2,500 americans lay dead on the beach. It was a blood bath compared to the utah beach who had lost 200. June 6, 1944 was the begings of the end of the nazi empire. it was one of the most important battels in history.
When the invasion had started the assistants on hitler knew that we were invading and we ganna tack the beach. The assistance were instuced DO NOT WAKE HIM UP! and they were scaried if they did they would have been exicuted. So the american solgers may have been stoped if the german assistance wernt so scared to wake him up. This is one of the main resons that helps along with most of the things meantioned above that the d-day operation was sucsessful because of the deception of the uneited states had gave out.